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Livingston , and former Governor George Clinton , the party's candidate for vice president. A group of Democratic-Republican leaders met in June and agreed to support Jefferson for president and Burr for vice president. Aaron Burr , U. Senator from New York. Samuel Adams , Governor of Massachusetts. Tennessee was admitted into the United States after the election, increasing the Electoral College to electors.
Under the system in place prior to the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment , electors were to cast votes for two persons. Both votes were for president; the runner-up in the presidential race was elected vice-president. If no candidate won votes from a majority of the Electoral College, the House of Representatives would a hold contingent election to select the winner.
2016 Presidential Election Essay
Each party intended to manipulate the results by having some of their electors cast one vote for the intended presidential candidate and one vote for somebody besides the intended vice-presidential candidate, leaving their vice-presidential candidate a few votes shy of their presidential candidate.
However, all electoral votes were cast on the same day, and communications between states were extremely slow at that time, making it very difficult to coordinate which electors were to manipulate their vote for vice-president. Additionally, there were rumors that southern electors pledged to Jefferson were coerced by Hamilton to give their second vote to Pinckney in hope of electing him president instead of Adams.
Campaigning centered in the swing states of New York and Pennsylvania. The Federalists swept every state north of the Mason-Dixon line , with the exception of Pennsylvania. However, one Pennsylvanian elector voted for Adams. The Democratic-Republicans won the votes of most Southern electors, but the electors of Maryland and Delaware gave a majority of their votes to Federalist candidates, while North Carolina and Virginia both gave Adams one electoral vote. Nationwide, most electors voted for Adams and a second Federalist or for Jefferson and a second Democratic-Republican, but there were several exceptions to this rule.
One elector in Maryland voted for both Adams and Jefferson, and two electors cast votes for Washington, who had not campaigned and was not formally affiliated with either party. Pinckney won the second votes from a majority of the electors who voted for Adams, but 21 electors from New England and Maryland cast their second votes for other candidates, including Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth. Those who voted for Jefferson were significantly less united in their second choice, though Burr won a plurality of the Jefferson electors.
All eight electors in Pinckney's home state of South Carolina, as well as at least one elector in Pennsylvania, cast their ballots for Jefferson and Pinckney. In North Carolina, Jefferson won 11 votes, but the remaining 13 votes were spread among six different candidates from both parties.
The end result was that Adams received 71 electoral votes, one more than required to be elected president. If any two of the three Adams electors in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina had voted with the rest of their states, it would have flipped the election. Jefferson received 68 votes, nine more than Pinckney, and was elected vice president.
Burr finished in a distant fourth place with 30 votes. Nine other individuals received the remaining 48 electoral votes. If Pinckney had won the second votes of all of the New England electors who voted for Adams, he would have been elected president over Adams and Jefferson. Source Popular Vote : U. President National Vote. Our Campaigns. February 11, National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 30, Source : Dave Leip's Atlas of U. Presidential Elections .
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While popular vote data is available for some states, presidential elections were vastly different in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Instead of the name of the presidential candidates, voters would see the name of an elector.
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Confusion over who the elector would vote for was common. Several states also elected a statewide slate of electors for example, since Thomas Jefferson won the popular vote in Georgia, the slate of four Jefferson electors was chosen but because of the archaic voting system, votes were tallied by elector, not candidate. The popular vote totals used are the elector from each party with the highest total of votes.
Source: A New Nation Votes . The following four years would be the only time that the president and vice-president were from different parties John Quincy Adams and John C. Calhoun would later be elected president and vice-president as political opponents, but they were both Democratic-Republican party candidates; Andrew Johnson , Abraham Lincoln 's second vice-president, was a Democrat, but Lincoln ran on a combined National Union Party ticket in , not as a strict Republican.
Jefferson would leverage his position as vice-president to attack President Adams's policies, and this would help him reach the White House in the following election. This election would provide part of the impetus for the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On January 6, , Representative William L. Smith of South Carolina presented a resolution on the floor of the House of Representatives for an amendment to the Constitution by which the presidential electors would designate which candidate would be president and which would be vice-president.
The Constitution, in Article II, Section 1 , provided that the state legislatures should decide the manner in which their Electors were chosen. Different state legislatures chose different methods: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For related races, see United States elections. Presidential electoral votes by state.
Because electors could not distinguish between their presidential and vice presidential choices until the passage of the Twelfth Amendment in , the map above assumes that the presidential votes are exactly the votes for Adams or Jefferson. Green denotes states won by Jefferson, burnt orange denotes states won by Adams, and gray denotes non voting territories.
Analysis Of The 1968 Us Presidential Elections Politics Essay
Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state. Popular vote Adams. Electoral vote Adams. Main article: List of United States presidential electors, Two Electors appointed by the state legislature Each remaining Elector chosen by the state legislature from list of top two vote-getters in each Congressional district. State is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district Each county chooses an electoral delegate by popular vote Elector is chosen by electoral delegates of the counties within their district.
United States Election Project. CQ Press. Retrieved April 15, Constitution Daily. Yale University Press. Oxford University Press. A New Nation Votes. American Antiquarian Society. Retrieved January 14, Maryland Manual On-line. Maryland State Archives. Retrieved January 16, Dave Leip's Atlas of U.
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Presidential Elections. Dave Leip. Retrieved September 20, Annals of Congress. Retrieved June 26, The Papers of George Washington. Archived from the original on September 14, Retrieved May 4, John Adams. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, — U. United States presidential election — Postage stamps Adams Memorial. Adams grandson Charles Adams Sr.
Thomas Jefferson. Vice President — 1st U. Secretary of State — U. Co-author, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen United States Presidential election Randolph grandson Francis Eppes grandson George W. Samuel Adams. Samuel Adams Sr. United States presidential elections.
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