- Importance of Obeying Traffic Laws Essay - Words | Bartleby
- The Dangers of Speeding
- Personal Narrative - Speeding Ticket Essay
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Thousands of people die in road crashes every year. Speeding is a contributing factor in resulting road accidents. Speeding reduces the amount of available time needed to avoid a crash. It also increases the severity of the crash, which lead to widespread causalities. Exceeding the speed limit is the most common error in fatal crashes. A speed limit is the maximum speed permitted to a vehicle on road by law. Speed limits are applied on different modes of transport to avoid fatal crashes and collisions.
Speed limits vary on types of roads and lanes. Residential and market areas generally have lower maximum speed limit. Speed limit is higher on Interstate highways, which are primarily used for movement of vehicles. The economic costs of crashes involving speeding are much higher. This is a disturbing trend as the younger generation is increasing showing irresponsibility while driving on road.
It has been noticed that alcohol and speeding are co-related to each other. Most crashes occur because of alcohol use among drivers. Speeding laws vary from state to state in the United States. It seems that most people tend to drive above the speed limit. Excessive use of drugs while driving is another factor that leads to accident on road. The young drivers lose control under the influence of drugs and resort to speeding of vehicle.
This is a growing problem as young people forget that medicines can have serious impact on their driving. The Real dangers of Speeding Speeding is a global problem. Every country in the world is witnessing the cases of rash driving, over-speeding and accidents on roads. In most of the countries, road crashes have become very common and occur more frequently. Home Il Locale Contatti. Vieni a trovarci! I prossimi eventi. Cocktail sfiziosi. Ampia selezione di distillati. Second, speed limits reduce dispersion in driving speeds thereby reducing vehicular conflicts. Apart from these primary functions, speed limits help to improve traffic flow efficiency.
Historically, speed limits have also been used as a means of energy conservation. In spite of these benefits, setting the speed limit of a road to an arbitrary value may, and most likely will, have a deteriorative effect on traffic flow and safety, as will become obvious from the literature reviewed in the following sections. In other words, imposing a speed limit is effective only if its value is set within an appropriate range. The effectiveness wanes as this value increases or decreases outside this range.
Moreover, this range differs from one roadway to another, depending on a multitude of factors. Traffic engineers therefore endeavor to determine the appropriate speed limit value for a given roadway. Up until , the federal government controlled albeit indirectly the maximum speed limit that could be set on any road in the United States.
After November , the federal government allowed all states to determine and implement their own speed limits.
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Many states raised their speed limits at that time. Currently, Wisconsin has a number of neighboring states who have increased the speed limit on their freeways and expressways to 70 mph from 65 mph. The motivation for this literature survey is to review the historical results of incorporating this change. First a brief history of the speed limit changes in the United States is discussed. Studies pertinent to these speed limit changes are then reviewed in a literature survey. Based on the literature reviewed, an attempt is made to identify traffic safety related issues pertaining to speed limit increase.
Finally, recommendations and conclusions are discussed. The first time was during World War II, when a speed limit of 35 mph was imposed.
Importance of Obeying Traffic Laws Essay - Words | Bartleby
After the war, the statutory national speed limit was removed. Prior to , many states had maximum speed limits of 70 or 75 mph. Then in , as a result of the energy crisis at that time, the federal government passed the Emergency Highway Conservation Act. According to Monsere et al 2 , in the years following the 55 mph speed limit, the number of fatalities in the interstate system declined drastically, as a consequence of perhaps the 55 mph speed limit but also because of less travel.
As the energy crisis disappeared, Congress was under increasing pressure to raise the speed limits. In , a study was commissioned by the Congress to review the impact of the 55 mph speed limit. Although this study recommended retaining the 55 mph limit, the Congress passed the Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Act in April, This Act permitted states to raise interstate speed limits to 65 mph, but only on rural sections.
Finally, in November , the federal government passed the National Highway System Designation Act and returned all speed limit authorities to the states. Post November , several states raised their speed limits.
The Dangers of Speeding
Currently all states have a maximum interstate speed limit between 65 mph and 75 mph. Note that the current maximum speed limit in rural and urban interstates as well as other limited access roads in Wisconsin is 65 mph. Each paper is discussed in a separate subsection and at the end of each subsection, there is a bulleted summary highlighting the key elements of the research.
In , Solomon 4 investigated the relationship between speed, characteristics of drivers and. This study was based on approximately miles of 2 and 4 lane rural highways.
A variety of data was collected through the review of 10, crash records. In addition, data such as driver age, gender, vehicle horsepower etc. Data was collected over a 2 year time period and included day, night and weekend samples. Of major relevance to our literature review is the U-shaped curve developed by Solomon that shows the accident involvement rate as a function of speed Figure 1.
In Figure 1, the accident involvement rate is the number of vehicles involved in accidents per million vehicle miles of travel. Travel speed is the reported speed of the driver at the time of accident. Figure 1 shows that involvement rate was highest for very low speed drivers.
It reached a low point at about 65 mph and beyond that, it increased again. Solomon 4 also calculated the involvement rate vs the difference in mean speed of the section and reported travel speed of the crash involved driver. The curve for this relation is illustrated in Figure 2. As seen in Figure 2 , the crash involvement rate is minimal near the average speed of traffic. This clearly indicates that that as speed variations increase, the involvement rate goes up.
From analyzing over 10, crash records, Solomon found that the severity of crashes in terms of persons injured as well as property damage value increased rapidly for speeds over 60 mph. The probability of a fatal injury rose sharply for speeds over 70 mph. First, the average speed was taken at only select sections of the highway, but the crashes occurred all over. As a result, the average speed may not have been depicted accurately.
Second, the speeds of the crash involved drivers were taken from police reports which again, may not have been that accurate. For two and four lane rural. This study may be seen as an extension to the study by Solomon. Cirrilo used data collected by 20 state highway departments. Results of the analysis showed that, as the speed of a vehicle varies from mean speed of traffic, the chances of an accident involving the vehicle increase. Similar trends found, i. Note that Cirillo found that variation up to 20 mph above the mean speed had little impact on involvement rate; however, variation in speed below the mean speed resulted in significant increases in involvement rate.
Using these data, they developed time series regression equations for each of the 40 states that had adopted the 65 mph speed limit. In their model, they attempted to control many other variables such as seat belt usage laws, seasonal variances, etc. The researchers found that overall there was a 15 percent increase in fatalities on rural highways. However, when analyzed state by state, the fatalities increased in some states, decreased in other states and had no detectable effect in the remainder. The regression analysis yielded an increase in fatalities for 28 of the 40 states.
Approximately 10 of these 28 states had a statistically significant increase. Of the 12 states that showed a decrease on fatalities, two had a statistically significant decrease. Therefore, the specific safety effects of the increase in speed limit had varying effects by state.
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Further, little was done to control for the confounding effects associated with the speed and FARS data. At that time, over 40 states had raised the speed limit to 65 mph on sections of their rural interstate roads. Since then, several studies evaluated the effect of the speed limit increase in Lave and Elias report that most of the studies simply looked at the number of fatalities before and after the increase of speed limit and this number usually increased.
Instead, they argued, a better estimate would be to look at the rates, i. The researchers further argue that many of the earlier studies were just confined into looking at the local effects of raising the speed limits. However, changing the speed limit is likely to have consequences for other roads in the state. For example, the enforcement needs could be reduced with the increase in speed limit due to better driver compliance. As a result, enforcement resources could be shifted to other safety activities. There may also be a shift of traffic from rural roads to the higher speed rural interstates, making rural roads safer.
Lave and Elias suggested that these broader consequences should also be taken into account. In their study, Lave and Elias considered these issues in order to evaluate the consequences of the speed limit increase. They used these data to perform three types of analysis.
First, the states were combined into two groups—one which raised the speed limit to 65 mph test group and the other that did not do so control group. Researchers calculated the average change in overall fatality rates that occurred after the new speed limit and estimated that the decrease in fatality rate for the test group was 3. The researchers supported this result by performing a state by state regression analysis in which the dependent variable was fatality rate. The independent variables were kept the same as an earlier study by Garber and Graham 6.
The most important independent variable was a dummy variable which was 0 in pre mph months and 1 thereafter. This variable was important since its purpose was to determine the effect that speed change had on the fatality rate.
If speed limit change did indeed impact the fatality rate, the regression equation would render this variable significant. All other independent variables were held constant. The analysis was done separately for each of the 65 mph states. The average decline in state-by-state fatality rates following the new speed limits was 3.
In order to check if this decline was the result of the new speed limit, the authors ran the same regression model on the 55 mph states, giving them fake 65 mph dummy variables from the date corresponding to the post 65 mph for the 65 mph states. Finally, the researchers also ran an analysis of the combined sample of 65 mph states and obtained a 5.
Using these results, the authors concluded that overall statewide fatality rates fell by 3. States with no speed limit change did not undergo any significant changes in fatality rates. Ossiander and Cummings. They analyzed data for fatal crashes, all crashes, fatalities and vehicle miles traveled on rural and urban interstate freeways in Washington State from These data were acquired from the Washington State Traffic Safety Commission, along with the average and 85th percentile speed data. Researchers then used Poisson regression to analyze the association between fatal crash rate and speed limit increase.
According to the researchers, Poisson regression is an appropriate method to use for data that follow a Poisson distribution.
Personal Narrative - Speeding Ticket Essay
Since traffic accident counts commonly follow a Poisson distribution, Poisson regression was determine to be suitable for this analysis. Data from were used for this analysis. However, the total crash rate showed little change implying that the share of crashes resulting in fatalities increased after the speed limit increase to 65 mph. Ossiander and Cummings observed a large association between speed limit change and fatal crash rate. They also found that the increase in fatal crash rate in Washington was larger than was found in many other studies. One of the possible explanations for this was the large increase in average speed from They contend that the effect of speed limit change is likely to depend on the change in vehicle speeds, and this change may differ substantially between states.
The researchers also observed that the geography of Washington State is such that drivers rarely have a real choice between using the rural freeway or another highway. Thus, the effect of drivers being attracted from other roads onto the higher speed freeways and thereby improving the statewide impact of increasing speed limits as suggested by Lave and Elias 5 did not occur here.
In addition, the average and 85th percentile vehicle speeds increased on rural freeways after the speed limit increase, but there was negligible change in the speed variance. The researchers argued. They observed that both slow and fast drivers seemed to be influenced by the new speed limits and increased their speed by about the same amount. Both slow and fast drivers seemed to be. Thus the effect of drivers being attracted from other roads onto the higher speed freeways and thereby improving the statewide impact of increasing speed limits as suggested by Lave and Elias 5 did not occur here.