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Meanwhile Sino-Soviet differences very much increased and the rightists in the party solidly stood with Russia, whereas the leftists supported view point of China. The rightists also condemned Chinese aggression over India. In September , differences between the party became so wide that leftists, formed a separate party called the Communist Party of India Marxist and both the parties issued separate election manifestoes.
During fourth general election both the factions fought elections independently and even opposed each other. Whereas the former sided with the government in the Parliament and voted with it during no-confidence moves the latter organised bandhs and encouraged hartals. These differences still continue. The Communists get main support from the labourers and peasants. The low caste in the rural areas and urban unemployed too extend their support to the party.
The communists have on the whole their support in West Bengal and Kerala. They have some supporters in other southern states as well. The communists believe in the principle of democratic centralism and centralised leadership. Within the party the members can, however, freely express their view point and can criticise leadership. But once the policies have been finalised these must be sincerely executed.
Both the parties are cadre based and have well developed hierarchical system. These start work at village level and thereafter district, state and national councils are set up for party work. Working and labouring classes are their main source of strength. The party stands for freedom of press and does not support imposition of emergency or MISA, etc.
It wants immediate implementation of land reform measures. It also did not support some of the amendments introduced in the constitution by the passing of Forty-Second Constitution Amendment Act. It suggests that public distribution system should be extended and essential commodities should be supplied at reasonable rates.
It opposes bank credits for speculative purposes. It stands for the take over of whole sale trade in food-grains and wants that essential commodities should be supplied at reasonable rates. It stands for take over of whole sale trade in food-grains and other essential commodities. It believes in rapid industrialisation and quick creation of employment opportunities. It wants nationalisation of jute, textile, sugar and foreign chug industries. It wants cancellation of all concessions given to big business but stands to encourage small and medium units through adequate credits and providing of raw materials.
It also wants that taxes on the people should be reduced. Industries in backward and rural areas should be set up and adequate facilities should be provided to technologists and scientists so that country becomes technically self-reliant. It stands for minimum, wages, guaranteed bonus, total ban on lay-offs, lockouts, closures, retrenchments but favours collective bargaining and right of workers to go on strike.
It also wants that the peasants should be given adequate prices for their produce and distribution of surplus and waste government lands among the landless. The party stresses that the artisans and workers should be supplied raw material at cheap rates and co-operatives for weavers and artisans should be set up. Women should be paid equal wages for similar work and for this all laws already enacted should be effectively implemented.
Comprehensive family welfare programme should be finalised. In implementing family planning programme, there should be no use of coercion and at work centres maternity homes should be started. It stands for right to work and labour-intensive schemes in rural and urban areas and also that the students should be given a hand in the running of management of educational institutions. Right of the Muslims, harijans and minorities should be fully protected. It wants that severe punishments should be given to those who discriminate against harijans. In foreign policy sphere party stands for non-alignment but at the same time wants that friendship should be encouraged with all the communist countries of the world.
It also stands for confiscation of all foreign capital in India. It also does not favour MISA law or press censorship and pleads for the takeover of foreign capital and investment of private foreign capital in the country. It suggests moratorium on all foreign debt payments and nationalisation of all monopoly houses.
It wants to give assistance to small- and medium-industries as well as propagates nationalisation of sugar, textile, cement, jute and drug industries. It pleads for the takeover all foreign trade and disfavours bureaucratisation of public sector undertakings. It encourages bargaining through trade unionism and cancellation of all debts payable by the peasants.
It wants to drastically bring down prices of essential commodities and reduce all taxes. The party suggests that all should be given right to work and that this should be made a constitutional right. Provision should also be made for unemployment relief and that illiteracy should be eradicated by providing free compulsory education for all.
In the foreign affairs, the party wants that India should have close co-operation with communist countries. It favours ban on private foreign capital and foreign debt payments. It also wants nationalisation of monopoly houses. Whereas CPI believes that revolution in India can be brought by working classes, CPI believes that the purpose can be achieved by co-operating with other democratic forces.
CPI M does not believe that the existing powerful classes will voluntarily give up power but CPI has all faith in peaceful means. It also wants peaceful settlement of Indo-China border dispute. The performance of Communists in India has been quite good. CPI had 6 Lok Sabha seats. In , both the parties combined together won about 50 seats.
In fact, since its formation both the parties have given a good account of their performance. These have not thought in term of merger with other opposition parties. It has an understanding with National Front. The Communits see quite, good future for themselves in India. In the elections held in April-May, the C. I 11 seals. Dev Gowda as Prime Minister. The former has however, decided support the same government from outside. The left parties hence also been in a position to form government under Jyoti Basil as Chief Minister in West Bengal for the fifth time.
Bhartiya Jana Sangh was founded by Dr. Shyama Parsad Mukerjre. It was one of the important political parties both at the centre as well as in the states and in IX it captured both the Municipal Corporation and Metropolitan Council for long time. After elections it merged itself with the Janata Party. But Charan Singh-Raj Narain axis raised the issue of dual membership. They wanted that the members of erstwhile Jana Sangh party should severe all their connections with the RSS, which according to their thesis was a political party. Both erstwhile Jana Sangh and other consumer s of Janata Party refuted this theory.
The Janata Party including erstwhile Jana Sangh group unitedly contested elections. After party defeat, leader of the Parliamentary party, Jagjiwan Ram raised the issue of dual membership. All efforts made by other constituents to solve the problem and save the party from further disintegration failed. Erstwhile Bhartiya Jana Sangh had no other alternative but to leave the party. Along with them several other prominent Janata party leaders, who did not contribute to the idea of dual membership, also left the party. Whereas erstwhile Bhartiya Jana Sangh maintained that it was altogether a new party, its opponents vehemently propagate that present BJP is nothing else but the old name of Bhartiya Jana Sangh.
The party is urban based though it is trying to spread its hold in the rural areas as well. It has considerable hold over educated middle class and large section of government servants. It is a cadre based party with hierarchical set up. The lowest unit of the party functions in a small area or locality. The party as it now stands, believes in secularism and democracy.
It wants that democracy should be preserved and for them the Communists should be opposed because they are opposed to democracy and preach violence. According to the party for preserving nation and independence everything should be sacrificed. The party wants that J and K should be merged with rest of India as quickly as possible. It stands for eradication of corruption and for providing cheap and speedy justice. It also believes in the principle of independence of judiciary. It also believes in the policy of democratic decentralisation. It wants to have economic democracy in which there should be equal opportunities for all and nationalisation of all basic and defence industries.
It stands for nationalisation of mining, tea plantation and such other industries which are at present in the hands of foreigners. It proposes to abolish sale tax and desires that every Indian citizen should have some minimum living standard. It also wants to give compulsory military training to all young men. It is opposed to the political appeasements of any community. It is also not in favour of capitalism and favours economic democracy. It is in favour of immediate land reforms and eradication of poverty. It is not opposed to the policy of economic liberalisation provided foreign multi-nationals are engaged for core sectors of national economy.
In the foreign affairs it wants that India should first of all look after its won interests and that she should have cordial relations with the neighbouring countries. It wants that no Indian should be allowed to have extra territorial loyalties and that everyone should have loyalties to the nation above everything else. Every problem should be solved by peaceful means and methods. The party does not tolerate indiscipline and wants it to be maintained at every level. The party is now laying stress on the use of Suadeshi. In Lok Sabha election manifesto the party made it clear that roots of all corruption lie in political corruption.
It is in favour of cleansing of public life by breaking unholy nexus between corrupt bureaucrats, corrupt businessman and corrupt politicians. It wants to strengthen Lok Pal and Lokayukta institutions. It also favours restructuring of tax system. The party favours major electoral reforms and checking of criminalisation of politics. It is in favour of economically and administratively viable small states. It also stands for statehood for Delhi. Tor settling inter-state disputes it wants to set up inter-state councils.
It is in favour of uniform civil code and setting up of Human Rights Commission instead of Minority Commissions. The party wants to have compulsory voting for all citizens and public funding of elections. It also wants to have optimum defence preparedness and provide adequate protection to handloom sector.
These programmes have also been included in party election manifesto for Lok Sabha elections. Party performance is very rapidly improving and it is emerging as an alternative to the Congress I. It also formed government in Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan but these state Assemblies were dissolved in the wake of Babri masjid demolition, As a result of elections held thereafter the party could form government in Rajasthan, Gujrat and Delhi.
It is a very important coalition partner of Shiv Sena in Maharashtra, where both together have formed government. In Madhya Pradesh, it is major opposition party. It has formed government in Gujrat. After the election held for eleventh Lok Sabha in Apirl-May, the party won seats and was returned as the single largest party and its leader Atal Bihari Vajpeyee was invited by the President to form the government. He fanned the government at the Centre and thus for the first time BJ.
But it remained m power for only 13 day when all other political parties decided not to support B. It is the mam opposition parties in both the Houses of Parliament now. The party performance in Lok Sabha elections was remarkable; whereas in the eighth Lok Sabha it had only two seats, in the ninth Lok Saba it won as many as 88 seats.
In the tenth Lok Sabha it emerged as the main opposition party. It is also the main opposition party in the Rajya Sabha. It was during fourth general elections that some Congress men under the leadership of Charan Singh broke away from the Congress party and founded a new political party called Bhartiya Kranti Dal. It was a coalition party in the S. Chief Minister. In , some non-Communist parties decided to come together.
The party was named as Bhartiya Lok Dal. The party decided to merge itself with the Janata Party which was founded in , and its leader Charan Singh became the Home Minister in the new government. But it broke out from the Janata Party on dual membership issue. It is opposed to taxation on agricultural produces. It wants that peasants should be given all facilities including credits, fertilisers and improved seeds, in addition to irrigation facilities.
It also wants abolition of land lordism. It is not in favour of take over of whole sale wheat trade by the government. It is opposed to the levy of income tax on salaries and insists on the widest dispersal of ownership of property and means of production. It is also against concentration of wealth in the hands of few capitalists and also that of too much of power in the hands of the central government. It wishes that the states should have more autonomy. The party has support of farmers and the rural folk of a part of U.
Both the Jats and Rajputs of U. It gives great importance to agricultural and rural development. It has full faith in Gandhian socialism and trusteeship system as propagated by Mahatma Gandhi. It wants that the agriculturists should be given remunerative prices for their produce.
The village should be self-sufficient unit and economy should be decentralised. It is opposed to communalism. It wants to end the hold of multinational corporations and foreign agencies. It wants to improve the conditions of the poor and the downtrodden and favours abolition of landlordism. It also favours curtailment of powers of the central government. It is also in favour of replacing income tax by consumption tax. It is opposed to drinking and aims at introducing prohibition.
After breaking away from Janata party Lok Dal tried to co-operate with Congress I and thereafter with Congress U but could not achieve much success. It received further set back when late Raj Narain left the party. During elections its performance in the Lok Sabha was disappointing but it could capture about Assembly seats in Bihar, Rajasthan and U. The party received further set back after the death of its founder President and leader Chaudhri Charan Singh.
It got divided with two groups one headed by his son Ajit Singh and the other by late H. It also formed government in the state, though subsequently both parted company. Ajit Singh group, however, joined the newly formed Janata Dal. Opposition parties in India have always been trying to come together. His call was responded by Janata Party leadership and accordingly Lok Dal and Janata Party decided to merge their identity and form a new party called Janata Dal.
Ajit Singh group also joined the Dal. It got the full support of Telugu Desam party headed by N. Rama Rao. The party came to an understanding with other opposition parties, including BJP and leftist parties. These parties developed a strategy by which only one candidate was to be fielded in each constituency to contest election against a Congress candidate, so that there was no division of votes.
The strategy worked well and as a result of general elections to the Lok Sabha the Congress lost majority. It could win only seats, as against of the National Front out of which Janata Dal won seats. BJP which won 88 seats and Leftist parties which could capture about 50 seats assured their support from outside to National Front formed the government.
This practically meant Janata Dal government. Thus, a minority government headed by Janata Dal leader V. Singh was formed with outside support of BJP and left parties. In , it formed government at the Centre, dislodging Congress I from power for the second time. The election manifesto of the party promised a clean and efficient government on the one hand restoring of dignity to all on the other.
The manifesto also promised to make right to work as a statutory right and to enshrine right to information in the Constitution. It also promised to convert AIR and Doordarshan into autonomous corporations. Another programme of the party included curbing of corruption and tracking down the kickbacks received in Bofors and other deals. The party promised to introduce comprehensive electoral reforms and curb money and muscle power in the elections.
It also aimed at revitalising parliamentary and other constitutional institutions and to make these accountable to the nation. It also promised rumencrative prices for agricultural produce, debt relief to farmers and make credit facilities available to them.
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It also planned to supply essential commodities to rural poor at reasonable prices. It also promised exploitation of water resources, maximum wages to agricultural labour, etc. In foreign policy, it proposes to follow the policy of non-alignment and have good neighbourly relations. It believed in open system of government at home. It was opposed to over centralisation and wanted to restore true federal character to polity. The party per posed to solve all national problems with the cooperation of other political parties.
It also promised to ensure that the judiciary was kept outside -je influence of the executive and justice was both quick and cheap. It promised implementation of Mandal Commission recommendations, which resulted in wide spread riots all over India and resulted in down fall of the government. It has formed governments in Karnataka and Bihar. It has entered into an alliance with Samaj-Wadi party in U. As a result of elections held in April-May for the eleventh Lok Sabha the party 44 seats.
It took active part in the formation of United Front consisting of 13 national and regional parties. It became a major partner in United Front Government headed by one of its leaders H. Dev Gowda as Prime Minister, which took office on 1. It is outgrowth of Justice Party of E. Ramaswamy Naicker. The party was founded by C. South India has been feeling concerned about its poverty for quite some time.
Some leaders of the non-Brahmin Dravidan Community founded separate party known as Justice party to launch a struggle against poverty. The leaders included C. Natasa Mudaliar, T. Nair and several others. But Justice party could not pull on well and many frictions and factions developed in it. It was out of these internal disputes that a leader of the people E. Ramaswamy Naicker emerged and in he founded DMK. It was in the beginning a party which was against the Brahmins, even the Veda: and all rituals and practices which the Brahmins had imposed on Hindu society. After independence Naicker adopted a negative attitude towards both about honouring national flag and Indian Constitution.
He also married a young 28 years party worker at the age of 72 and also did not agree to run Party on democratic lines. This irritated many party workers who organised themselves under the leadership of C. Annadurai, who had earlier been chosen by Naicker himself as his trusted colleague. The new party decided to champion the cause of the poor, illiterate and down-trodden in Tamil Nadu. Soon the party started entering political arena. In , it won 15 seats in the state Assembly but the number rose to 50 in In that year it also won 7 Lok Sabha seats.
But it was in that party captured power in the state and also captured all the 25 seats which it contested for the Lok Sabha. Even in that year it captured 23 Lok Sabha seats. There was however division in the party when M. It is this party which remained in power in the state for about a decade.
In , when Janata party came to power, it co-operated with it and its nominees held Ministerial posts in the Union Cabinet. In the elections held in the party could capture only one Lok Sabha seat and its performance was not good even in the state elections held at that time. The party captured power in the state after elections held early in for the State Assembly in Tamil Nadu. It, however, could not win even a single seat for the Lok Sabha in the elections held in November of that year. The party had then sided with National Front. In the party had no representation in the Lok Sabha and also in Tamil Nadu Assembly where it had almost, giving been completely wiped out.
The party position however, very much improved during elections, which were held in April-May of that year both for the Lok Sabha as well as the State Assembly. For the Lok Sabha it won 17 seats, whereas in the Assembly elections, it won absolute majority. It formed government under Karunanidhi. Dev Gowda. The party stands for more powers for the states, as in its opinion states in India are more or less glorified municipalities.
It is opposed to the imposition of Hindi on the people of the South. It wants federalisation of financial resources and code of conduct to give guide-lines under which states Assemblies should be dissolved. It favours free press and ending of regional imbalances.
It wants industrialisation in the South which could end poverty. It also wants that Darvadian culture should be popularised. It favours regional language as state language. It stands for the uplifting of the poor and the down trodden, both socially and economically. It favours giving wide powers to the states both in financial and administrative fields. The party was founded in October by M.
In the elections held in the party won absolute majority in Tamil Nadu and formed government. It also captured 18 Lok Sabha seats. It also formed Ministries in Pondicherry both in and In elections, the party, however, could win only two Lok Sabha seats but its performance in Assembly elections held in that year was really impressive. It could form government in Tamil Nadu. In the Lok Sabha elections held in it could capture 12 out of 18 Lok Sabha seats, and its performance in the Assembly was loo impressive.
Ramachandran began to keep poor health. He almost lost his vigour to guide, though he continued to guide party affairs and also remained state Chief Minister. After his death the party got divided between Janaki Ramachandran his wife group and Jayalalitha group. In the elections which were held for the slate Assembly in DMK took full advantage of the rift and could win absolute majority in the State Assembly. It formed government under the leadership of M.
Both Janaki and Jayalalitha groups, however, again united. In , the party had 12 seats in the Lok Sabha and 6 seats in the Rajya Sabha. The party has strong hold in the state. Both the parties contested as combine both in Tamil Nadu and Pondichem but were badly defeated. The alliance had very poor performance in both the states.
The party wants that more powers and resources should be transferred to the states. It also does not wish that Hindi should be given the status of national language. It favours regional language as state language with English as link language. It stands for prohibition and nationalisation of large-scale industries and also state control over essential commodities. It also wants that the electorates should be given power to recall their elected representatives. It favour prohibition throughout India and State controlled production and distribution of all essential commodities.
In the foreign affairs it feels that the government is leaning towards Soviet Union and wants that India should have close healthy relations with neighbouring and South East Asian countries. It lays great stress on national security and recovery of all those Indian territories which have been occupied by foreign powers. The party was set up as early as in but its performance during stale Assembly elections was not good. In , the party demanded creation of sovereign state of Mizoram which should be empowered to frame its own foreign policy. Underground activities of militant Mizos very considerably increased and military had to be called to crush it.
Militant attitude of the party persisted for about 2 decades when in an Accord was signed with Mizo National From leader Laldenga and a coalition government with the partnership of Congress I under his Chief Ministership was formed. In the party got majority in the State Assembly and formed a government of its own. It continued to rule the state till September when the government was dismissed and the state was placed under President rule. Meanwhile there was split in the party and new party called MNF Democrat was formed. In , when elections for the state Assembly were again held the party did not fair well and could capture only 14 seats as against 23 of the Congress I.
In November , the party could manage to win only 14 seats. In , the party had no representation in Parliament. After the creation of separate state of Mizoram insurgency and militancy in the state has been considerably brought under control. The party wants that Mizo culture language and religion should be fully protected and separate state for the purpose should be created. The state should have sufficient resources needed for self-reliant economy of the state so that it becomes less dependent on the Centre. Hindu Mahasabha is an old political party.
It was in existence even before the partition of the country. Main aim of the party then was to counter the effect of Muslim League and to consolidate the Hindus and make them politically conscious about their rights and place in India. The party wants that Hindu culture and civilisation should be protected and developed. It believes in the following of democratic principles but wants that India should be developed on the basis of cultural traditions of the country.
It is of the view that it should not be forgotten that India is predominantly a Hindu state.
It wants that all sections of Indian society should be consolidated and uplifted and all social in-equalities and disabilities should be removed. It is strongly of the view that cow slaughter should be banned. It stands for the nationalisation of all key industries and also wants that India should be quickly industrialised and modernised.
It is opposed to concentration of wealth just in few hands. It wants that able bodied persons should be given compulsory military training. It favours compulsory military training for all able bodies person so that India emerges as a powerful state. In spite of the fact that it is an old political party, yet it has not made any dent on the political scene of India. By the ruling elite it has been branded as a communal political party which has no place in secular fabric and polity of the country.
In Punjab politics Akali Dal has played and continues to play a very dominant role. It was due to the efforts of this Dal that interests of Sikhs in Punjab were protected or at least their demands came to focus. Before bifurcation of Punjab into two separate states i. Punjab and Haryana the Dal had been demanding creation of separate Punjabi speaking state.
In , under Indira wave Akali Dal lost majority in the state Assembly but emerged as single largest group in the state. In , it was returned to power in the state and formed coalition government with Janata party. The party had cabinet post in Janata government which was in power between When Moraiji Desai government resigned, it decided to extend its cooperation to the care-taker government headed by Charan Singh.
In elections, the Dal did not return to power, but was the single largest party in Punjab Legislative Assembly. The violence not only created law and order problem but took many precious lives in a very planned manner. This group ushered an era of terrorism in Punjab and the minorities started leaving the state. Under the circumstances the state was placed under President rule, but the government showed its keenness to introduce democratic set up and accordingly an Accord was signed between the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Surject Singh Bamala and Sant Longowal. Sant Longowal was, however, shot down by the terrorist.
Akali Government of Barnala, however, could not remain united and got divided. It was also alleged that some of its Ministers were in league with the terrorists. The minority government with the help of some other parties continued in power but could not check deteriorating, law and order situation. President rule had to be again imposed and state remained under President rule for few years, till elections were held and Congress I returned to power. It formed government under Beant who successfully brought peace to the state but in the process annoyed the militant, who shot him dead in He was succeeded by H.
Brar as state Chief Minister. In , the party had no representation in the Lok Sabha. In Lok Sabha elections held in April-May of that year the party won 8 out of 13 seats and thus got good representation in the Lok Sabha from Punjab. It believes in the abolition of landlordism and taking over land without payment of compensation. It favours state control over means of production and distribution. It supports the idea of reducing the prices of agricultural equipments and free movement of food stuff from one state to the other. It favours inn-coercive family planning programme.
It wants that all Panjabi speaking areas and also Chandigarh should be transferred to Punjab and favours safeguarding of social, economic and political interests of minorities. It favours the philosophy of socialism and that of welfare state. It believes that agricultural production should be increased and it should also be exempted from the payment of sales tax.
It also stands for free movement of food grains throughout the country. It wants immediate withdrawal of all repressive laws. Asom Gana Parishad was founded in When elections for the state Assembly were held in December of that year it was returned as a majority party and its leader Prafulla Kumar Mohanta formed government in the state. But soon the party alienated the sympathies of Bengalis and Marwaris because of its unqualified support to the Hindu Community of Brahmaputra.
It also adopted an attitude of confrontation with the Central government. Elections to the state Assembly were again held in June , when its performance was very disappointing. The party pleads that the people of Assam should dominate over state economy and Bangladeshis who have come to Assam and settled down here should be thrown out of the state. After Stale Assembly elections the party was in a position to form a coalition government in the State, with its leader Proffula Kumar Mohanta as Chief Minister. It also won five Lok Sabha seats and has decided to support and join United Front government at the Centre.
It is also a part of Federal Front formed by four regional parties within the United Front. It was in that year that the party saw a split and went in the background. In , the party was revived under late Shiekh Muhammad Abdulla and showed good performance both in the Lok Sabha and State Assembly elections. After his death the party again got divided and Dr. It won Assembly elections but could not survive full term as G. Shah withdrew his support from the government. Shah Ministry which came to power with the support of Congress, could not control deteriorating law and order situation and check corruption in the state.
The party lost support of the Congress and saw its down fall. He, however, recommended dissolution of Assembly and proposed fresh elections, which were held in National Conference and Congress I co-operated with each other and won absolute majority in the state Assembly. It formed government as well in the state.
But when Jag Mohan was appointed state Governor, state Chief Minister resigned and since then the state is under President rule. The party is opposed to communalism and favours socialism. It accepts that Kashmir is an integral part of India but wishes that its special status should be continued. It also wants more autonomy and Financial resources for the state. It also believes that states in India should be given more powers.
The party was founded in March under the leadership of N. Rama Rao, a film star. In the Assembly elections which were held in the party captured power in Andhra Pradesh, where it had its strong hold. In , elections were again held for the State Assembly and once again Rama Rao established supremacy of his party. He won as many as seats in a House of His party emerged as the single largest opposition in the Lok Sabha.
It became for all purposes a part of newly formed Janata Dal, headed by V. In the elections held in , both for the Lok Sabha as well as State Legislative Assembly, the party badly failed. It lost power in the State where Congress I was returned to power. It could get only two Lok Sabha seats from the state.
Buy Cheap Interest Aggregation and Political Parties Essay
As a result of elections held in for the Lok Sabha the party captured 13 seats but subsequently there was split in the party and its strength was reduced to seven in In that year in Andhra Pradesh L. The party is now divided in two factions one by Chander Babu Naidu and other by N. Parvati was completely routed. It could not win even a single Lok Sabha seat, whereas Naidu group won 16 seats. It has joined United Front government headed by H.
It is also a constituent of Federal Front constituted by four regional party. The party believes that living standard of the people of India can be raised only through rural development. Special measures should be taken for improving the lot of women, children and weaker sections of society. It wants that strong steps should be taken to check corruption at all levels and unemployed should be given unemployment allowance.
It also wants more financial resources for the states and transfer of powers from the centre to the states. It is not in favour of imposition of Hindi but favours Development of regional languages. The party has promised imposition of complete prohibition in the state and also make available rice to the poor Rs. It also promised free mid-day meal programme for school children. It stands for the development of Telugu language in the state.
For a very long time U. They in turn extended their whole hearted support to the party which on the basis of their voting strength remained in power for decades, both at the centre as well as the states. But as the time passed these sections of society began to alienate themselves from this party. The party aims at uplifting the Dalits and down-trodden sections of the society. It believes that it can be possible only when strong hold of Brahmins and Baniyas on the society is completely finished and the Dalits are relieved from their clutches. It believes that such Dalits are in majority in India, therefore, their rule can be the basis of true democracy in the country.
Soon after coming into existence the party could develop some base in Punjab and Haryana. It could capture 9 seats in state legislative Assembly of Punjab and 67 seats that of U. In the party U. It could not get any foot-hold in Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh. Mulayam Singh government did not last long in U.
P from outside and formed government under the Chief Ministership of Ms. But because of basic ideological differences the combination could not pull on well and in a short span of about four months, B. The state Assembly was subsequently dissolved. In , the party had one seat each in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
It performance during Lok Sabha elections was quite impressing. It won 11 Lok Sabha seats. It has quite a good strong hold in U. The party has its foot hold in Kerala, where it could capture some Assembly seats during and elections. In , it had 17 seats in Kerala L. Its performance as a political party has neither been impressive in the Lok Sabha nor in the state Assemblies except in Kerala.
The party favours protecting interests of the Muslim minorities all over the country. It favours socialism. The main cause of its unpopularity is that the people of India have not forgotten that Muslim League under the Mr. Jinnah was responsible for the partition of the country.
Secondly, since India has secular character, the people have developed a sort of elergy for communal parties. The party was founded by late Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee on the eve of first general elections. After its formation it gained ground in North India and Madhya Pradesh.
It also performed well both in the Lok Sabha as well as state Assembly elections held in It received unfavourable treatment from the mling Congress I party during emergency. After the lifting of emergency when Janata Party was formed a large part of the Jana Sangh decided to merge itself with the newly born party.
A section still wants to maintain its identity and continues to retain its name under Presidentship of Prof. Balraj Madhok. The party wants that Hindu culture should be protected and the Muslims of India should be Indianised. It also wants that India should be a Hindu state and partition of the country was a wrong decision. It wants that special status of Kashmir should be ended. It favours democratic system and rule of law. It is not in favour of bicameralism in the states. It wants unitary system for the country as a whole.
It favours nationalisation of main industries and that in foreign policy national interests should be kept above everything else. The party wants that the states should be given more powers and like many other parties it also wants that financial resources of the country should be so divided that the states become financially less dependent on the Centre.
It also wants that the Centre should least interfere in the affairs of the states. It however has not much say in political affairs of the country. In India regional political parties are being founded in good numbers. There is no region in the country which has no regional parties. Each such party has influence within its own region and over shadows even the national parties at the time of elections in some states.
It thrives on the exploration of ethnic, cultural, communal, lingual and similar other feelings of the people of the region. These protect the interests of the region first and nation later on. These lake up such issues which concern the region and their aim is to capture power in the region but some regional leaders aspire to become national leaders as well and aspire capture power at the national level. Though at the national level it is felt by many that mush room growth of regional level parties is not in the national interest, but even then large number of national level parties have come into existence and their number is ever increasing for which several causes are responsible.
In some cases these parties come into existence as a protest against too much interference in the affairs of the state while in others because of the over ambitiousness of some regional leaders who feel that they have no future at the national level. Some leaders find a new political party when they find that in the existing political set up they can get nothing. In some cases regional political parties are founded because regional people find that the central leadership has neglected their economic development and that the region will not develop unless there is a regional party to raise a voice for the region.
Still another reason being that some regions wish to maintain their separate entity at all costs and these do so by founding a separate regional party. Regional level parties have established their utility in India, which becomes clear when these over shadow even the national political parties. These give concrete programmes for the development of the region and way in which regional problems should be solved.
These also give expression to the aspiration of the people. The people of the region extend their support to regional leaders, who form government in the region. Regional political parties draw the attention of the Parliament to regional issues and thus try to influence the policies of Central government. These also try to make to the people conscious about their social and economic problems and also make efforts to politically educate them so that at the time of next elections they cast their vote consciously.
These have also made the national parties realise that without attending to their problems these cannot expect much from them at the time of next elections. Thus, these have made them feel the importance of balanced regional development approach. Thus, regional political parties have only shown an impact on the regions but have also considerably influenced national political scene. But at the same time these undermine the importance of the country as a nation. These place region above nation.
Thus stand on the way of national unity. Each even regional parties are friction ridden therefore, these divide state people in groups and different camps. Some regional parties adopt an attitude of confrontation with central leadership. These thus waste their time in confrontations and retard development of the state to which they claim to represent. The role of regional political parties became very pivotal after Lok Sabha elections when no national political party could get absolute majority in the Lok Sabha.
Regional political parties like D. P decided not to side with B. On the other hand those decided to join proposed United Front being sponsored by so called secular forces. With their strength and support United Front was in a position, with the outside support of Congress I and some left parties to form government at the Centre. These parties have joined the government as well. Within the United Front four regional parties have also formed a separated Federal Front.
The role of regional political parties in national politics has considerably increased. In the country where there is multi-party system and in which division of the parties has come to stay without any resentment by the electorates. The parties have been coming as well as going out of existence qrite of ten. Each state has regional parties which play a part at a particular point of time whereas at other times their significance and role very much comes down in state politics.
The Future of Political Parties
In our system there is too much importance for the leadership. As long as leader remains in the party, it continues, but after his departure party is faced with the problem of disintegration. That is why many political parties are formed in the name of an individual. We are running all of these tests below to find out if symbolic racism and fondness of Obama are related. There were females and males, for a total of participants. Subjects were represented by Early leaders, such as the revered George Washington, feared that political parties would split our.
George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson were the four most prevalent figures in leadership during this time. Even before the creation of parties, there were strong feelings against them. George Washington stated in his Farewell Address to avoid parties because they would create factions. Factions are a group or clique within a larger group, or the government in this case.
American Political Parties There have been many different political parties since the beginning of the American political system. A political party is made up of a group of people that share common goals and ideals, and these people work together to help elect people to offices that share these goals to represent them. Political parties work to try to control the government and their ultimate goal is to win as many elections and to gain as many offices as possible.
During the time when the. The American Two Party Political System Since the administration of George Washington two political parties have dominated the United States political system, but they have not always been the same two parties. The first two parties were the Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Federalists were those who supported a strong federal government and the Anti-Federalists were those who did not.
Free Interest Aggregation and Political Parties Essay Sample
Both were from the Northeast where. The role Alexander Hamilton and James Madison played on the first political parties. Alexander Hamilton and James Madison were both very important political figures in the early years of our nation and their paths led them to two different political factions, The Federalist Party and the Democratic Republican Party, respectively. The years after the American Revolution were very hard on most Americans. The former colonies had huge debts to pay off from the war and the soldiers of the Continental.
Greenberg Honors Gov. It gives Americans the chance to voice their pleasure, or displeasure, with those who represent them in public office by selecting who they believe best represents their values and beliefs. But who organizes the candidates? What are they affiliated with? The answer is political parties. A political party is an organization of people who share the. The Democrats and the Republicans have been the two parties fighting for the Presidency since that time. There have been many other parties since that time, but mainly, these two have gone unopposed against each other.